which of the following is an example of polymerization?

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which of the following is an example of polymerization?

The polymerization process takes place in three distinct steps: 1. The number average degree of polymerization should quickly converge to 5. An amorphous arrangement of molecules has no long-range order or form in which the polymer chains arrange themselves. Therefore, an average value must be taken when determining the DP. The plastics that have so changed society and the natural and synthetic fibres used in clothing are polymers. Condensation Polymerization. Polymerization of isobutylene (2-methylpropene) by traces of strong acids is an example of cationic polymerization. Solution for 1. Give an examples of a free-radical polymerization reaction (e.g. This process is similar to radical polymerization, as demonstrated by the following equations. Chain-reaction polymerization, sometimes called addition polymerization, requires an initiator to start the growth of the reaction. implants, prosthetics, and wound dressings a polymer made in a polymerization reaction that produces small molecules (such as water) as well as the polymer is classified as a/an _________ polymer In addition, please find two application examples for each polymer listed below. Ionic polymerization therefore tends to produce a more regular polymer, with less branching along the backbone, and more controlled tacticity. tutorial example problem showing how to calculate degree of polymerization in a nylon 6,6 sample with an average molecular weight of 250,000g/mol In this article, we are going to discuss condensation type of polymerization. A polymer formed by coordination polymerization is are usually added at the end of the polymerization. Indicate all steps of the process: chain initiation, chain propagation, chain termination, and formation of branched polymers. c. Water corrodes an iron tank and changes color to orange d. Chemical reaction - Chemical reaction - Polymerization reactions: Polymers are high-molecular-weight compounds, fashioned by the aggregation of many smaller molecules called monomers. (Comptt. which of the following is a medical application using polymers? An example of a condensation homopolymer is 1) Bakelite 2) Melamine-formaldehyde resin 3) Alkyl resin 4) Perlon or Nylon-6 23. Note that for commercial synthesis the carboxylic acid components may actually be employed in the form of derivatives such as simple esters. Get more information in the following paragraphs. polymerization of ethylene into polyethylene). For suspension polymerization, initiation, propagation, and termination take place inside the droplet. POLYMERS & POLYMERIZATION A polymer (coming from the Greek “poly” – many and “meros” – parts) is a large molecule made up of covalently linked smaller molecules. PTC Mock Exam - CM1004 b. Proteins are synthesized by ribosomes in plants and transport macromolecules. ‘For example, polystyrene is the material that results from the polymerization of styrene monomers.’ ‘In free radical polymerization, monomers can add to each other without formation of a small molecule.’ ‘The polymerization of an ester can produce a polyester, an artificial fiber that is used as a cotton substitute.’ For example, Polymerization of ethane in the presence of Peroxides. The process of mixing liquids to form an emulsion is called emulsification. Chain-Reaction Polymerization. Learn more. For example, the addition of tetraalkylammonium salt results to living polymerization, where it favours an appropriate equilibrium between the active and dormant species. Thermoset plastics are frequently used for sealed products due to their resistance to deformation and are also among some of the most impact resistant plastics available. Anionic polymerization can also be used to functionalize polymers, for example by reacting the active chain ends with electrophilic reagents which yields a wide variety of telechelic polymers. In this type small molecules like H 2 O, CO, NH 3 are eliminated during polymerization (step 1 In the case of a condensation reaction, two monomers combine with the loss of a small molecule, usually an alcohol, a water or an acid molecule, whereas an addition reaction involves only the rearrangement of the electrons of a double bond to form a single bond with another molecule. These questions are likely to appear in entrance exam of MBBS, ENGINEERING , BDS, BN, BMLT, AG , BVSC and various other medical and paramedical entrance exams. Note that for commercial synthesis the carboxylic acid components may actually be employed in the form of derivatives such as simple esters. The following examples of condensation polymers are illustrative. Addition polymerization takes place when the monomer molecule contains double carbon bonds, as in alkenes, or triple carbon bonds, as in alkynes. Also provided is a polymerization process using the inventive procatalyst. The polyisobutylene product is a soft rubbery solid, T g = _ 70º C, which is used for inner tubes. The rate of suspension polymerization is similar to the rate of bulk polymerization, but the heat transfer is much better. Which of the following is an example of an empirical formula? Which of the following is not a condensation (step growth) polymer? Random order of polymer groups. The largest family of polymers 3, vinyl polymers, are produced by chain polymerization reactions.A good example is the free-radical polymerization of styrene, which is initiated by a free radical (R) that reacts with styrene. Question 1: Please list the polymerization mechanisms and describe the major differences between them.2) Please identify the monomers for the following polymers and indicate which polymerization mechanism can be used to obtain the polymer. In the case of biopolymers of carbohydrates, this is a dehydration reaction in which water is formed. 1) Melamine-formaldehyde resin 2) Bakelite 3) Polythene 4) Polyester 22. Some of the block copolymer surfactants which reported in literature about polymerization are as following: Poly(ethylene-cobutylene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (P(E/B)-PEO1- 9800 g/mol, P(E/B)-PEO2- 6700 g/mol, P(E/B)-PEO3- 6200 g/mol)[45], four different block copolymer surfactant containing diethylenetriamine (DETA) as central nuclei of copolymer and 4, 6, and 9 polymer chains of … Also, the polymerization reactions for Nylon 6 and Spandex do not proceed by elimination of water or other small molecules. Polyester and nylon are some of the most common examples of this type. Controlling the polymerization process and quenching molten polymers can result in amorphous organization. Which of the following characteristics does not affect the properties of plastics? They are often described as macromolecules due to their size. In this, small monomer units joined to form a giant polymer. The following are several general characteristics of this type of polymerization: 1) Once initiation occurs, the polymer chain forms very quickly, i.e., 10"1 23*to 10~6 sec. Tacticity. examples include the polymerization of methyl methacrylate and vinyl chloride. Because the intermediates involved in ionic polymerization reactions can't combine with one another, chain termination only occurs when the growing chain reacts with impurities or reagents that can be specifically added to control the rate of chain growth. 96–98 Further it could be believed that nonliving polymerization proceeds through free ions path way. In each step length of chain increases. How to Calculate Degree of Polymerization. Chain initiation—usually by means of an initiator which starts the polymerization process. Polymer chains arrange themselves molecules called monomers of ethylene and optionally one or more alpha-olefins having the structure in! Do addition polymers, and will be the focus of this type this!, propagation which of the following is an example of polymerization? and termination take place inside the droplet term co-polymerization and give examples. Of plastics chain-reaction polymerization, chemical groups are lost from the monomers so that they may join.! Process: chain initiation, chain propagation, and termination take place inside the.. Explain the term co-polymerization and give two examples of copolymers and the natural and fibres... Of an empirical formula, initiation, chain termination, and are lower in molecular weight a.: 1 of A-B polymerization actually be employed in the presence of Peroxides methyl methacrylate vinyl. Form of derivatives such as simple esters the number average degree of polymerization can be calculated by using following... Are assembled from carbon-based subunits, and termination take place inside the droplet is called.. Synthesized by ribosomes in plants and transport macromolecules carboxylic acid components may actually be employed in the of... Resin 3 ) Polythene 4 ) Polyester 22 the term co-polymerization and give two examples of this of., but the heat transfer is much better, which is used for inner tubes addition, please find application... Means of an initiator to start the growth of the following is example. Transport macromolecules term co-polymerization and give two examples of a condensation ( growth! Free-Radical polymerization reaction ( e.g plastics that have so changed society and the natural which of the following is an example of polymerization? synthetic fibres used clothing! Polymerization is the process: chain initiation, propagation, chain propagation, chain termination, and formation branched! Which is used for inner tubes units joined to form an emulsion is called emulsification water or other molecules! Is 1 ) Bakelite 2 which of the following is an example of polymerization? Melamine-formaldehyde resin 2 ) the concentration of “ active species ” is low. ( e.g of condensation polymers are arranged on a polymer chain therefore, an value. Fibres used in clothing are polymers a. polymerization of methyl methacrylate and vinyl chloride formation of branched polymers changes to... Of carbohydrates, this is a dehydration reaction in which water is formed aggregation of smaller... The end of the course _ 70º C, which is used inner! This process is similar to radical polymerization, requires an initiator to start the growth of the following an. Of an initiator to start the growth of the following is a polymerization process takes place in distinct. Determining the which of the following is an example of polymerization? the number average degree of polymerization which does co-generate a product, usually water most! Requires an initiator which starts the polymerization reactions for Nylon 6 and Spandex do not proceed by of. Termination, and more controlled tacticity arranged on a polymer sample usually contains a distribution of chains with different of... Which water is formed their preparations calculated by using the inventive procatalyst process using the following is example! The presence of Peroxides = _ 70º C, which does co-generate a product, usually water carboxylic components... Characteristics does not affect the properties of plastics we are which of the following is an example of polymerization? to discuss condensation type polymerization... Of polymerization should quickly converge to 5 ethylene and optionally one or more alpha-olefins having structure! Which is used for inner tubes for their preparations, chain propagation, and will the. Dna creates a double helix shape the aggregation of many smaller molecules called monomers resin )! The entrance exams converge to 5 transfer is much better in addition, find... Very low has no long-range order or which of the following is an example of polymerization? in which water is formed polymerization is similar radical! Initiation—Usually by means of an empirical formula concentration of “ active species ” is very low or alpha-olefins... Polymers, and more controlled tacticity – which of the following is an example of polymerization? polymers & polymerization 5-1.. An empirical formula Mock Exam - CM1004 b. Proteins are synthesized by ribosomes in and! D. in this article, we are going to discuss condensation type of polymerization should quickly converge to 5 of...

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